To diagnose illness and treat a variety of illnesses, laboratories employ urinalysis. These include UTIs (urinary tract infections), diabetes, liver illness, as well as renal disease. Some businesses additionally require that employees and job applicants submit to a urine collection so that a urinalysis can be performed to check for drug use.
Numerous addiction treatment and rehabilitation programs need regular urine testing to check for drug and alcohol use, which may also assist in spotting relapses while in recovery. Professional athletes can also be tested for drug use using a urine sample. For more information on urinalysis, read this article.
What Procedures Are Used for Liquid Urine Analysis?
Analyzing liquid pee in a lab involves three different techniques. In the first, the color and purity of the urine are examined visually. In the second, a microscopic examination is performed to look for parasites, blood or tumor cells, etc.
A tiny plastic strip that has been chemically laced is inserted into the urine for the third test, known as a dipstick. The chemicals reacted and changed color if there was an anomaly.
How is urine obtained for testing?
A person typically receives a specimen cup from a research team, doctor, or lab to collect their midstream pee. To collect a sample as directed, this includes inserting the specimen cup beneath the stream of urine.
This method of collecting urine is not only filthy, but it also presents several difficulties. The liquid specimen collections are susceptible to adulteration as well as contamination, which could skew the results by giving falsely positive or negative results.
Additionally, to preserve stability throughout shipment, liquid urine samples need to be expensively refrigerated between 2 and 8 degrees Celsius.
Urine collection techniques in hospitals are designed to produce more sanitary samples. The following are four typical hospital procedures:
- Clean-catch (CC)
- Sterile urine bag
- Suprapubic aspiration (SPA)
- Urethral catheterization (Cath)
- Dried urine sampling (DUS)
Since they reduce false positives, catheterization (Cath), as well as suprapubic aspiration (SPA), is thought to produce the most accurate results. They hurt and are intrusive, though. Although it is a simple alternative, the urine bag approach has a greater probability of false positives.
In the clean-catch (CC) approach, a patient sweeps the spot clean before self-collecting an upstream urine sample, which is a revised form of the pee-in-a-cup method mentioned. Visit worktraining.com for further details if you want to learn these techniques for collecting urine samples on your own.
1. Clean Catch
A random urine specimen is needed for routine urinalysis; therefore, urine can be obtained without even any particular precautions at any hour of the day.
It’s crucial to collect a clean catch specimen when the client is thought to have a urinary tract infection. To remove any skin-borne microorganisms that can contaminate the urine sample, it is necessary to clean catch the perineum and the area around the genitalia.
The sample must be taken in the center of the urine flow, sometimes known as midstream. By doing this, the urine’s early and last portions, which are more prone to include skin-borne microorganisms, are not collected.
2. Sterile Urine Bag
For babies, sterile urine bags are frequently utilized. Over the child’s genitalia, urine collecting bags are affixed with a soft adhesive. They can either be inserted inside the diaper or slit to make room for the bag. Despite their seeming convenience, bags can spill or come apart, so collecting still needs to be done carefully.
With bag removal, discomfort, as well as skin irritation, is possible but typically minor. Additionally, urine stored in bags is quite prone to contamination. To add, there have also been studies on urine bags; it is said that a meta-analysis of 21 researches, 7659 samples, discovered 47 percent contamination as well as 61 percent false positives.
3. Suprapubic Aspiration (SPA)
A method called suprapubic aspiration is used to take a urine sample. When a urinary catheterization cannot be put, it is frequently done. Although it can be done on adults, it is frequently done on youngsters.
The suprapubic aspiration process is reviewed in this activity, which also emphasizes the importance of the interdisciplinary team in carrying out the procedure and keeping an eye out for any complications. It is widely recommended for obtaining urine from kids for urinalysis.
The American Academy of Pediatrics Clinical Practice Guidance for the treatment of urinary tract infection (UTI) in children between the ages of 2-24 months, released in 2011, advises that children with a fever of uncertain cause undergo a suprapubic aspiration or urinary catheterization to obtain a urinalysis.
SPAs are rarely carried out, although being advised. Since SPA is viewed as an invasive and painful operation, urinary catheterization is recommended by the majority of medical professionals.
Additionally, this operation can be carried out on both toddlers and adults if the bladder outflow is blocked. For urologists, pediatrics, and emergency doctors, being proficient in suprapubic aspiration is an essential process.
4. Urethral catheterization (Cath)
A urinary catheter is a tube that drains urine from the bladder and then gathers it in a hollow, somewhat flexible form. There are numerous sizes and shapes of urinary catheters. Rubber, plastic (PVC), as well as silicone can all be used to make them.
When you are unable to empty your bladder, catheters may be required. Urine can accumulate in the bladder if it is not emptied, putting strain on the kidneys. As a result of the pressure, renal failure may occur, which is potentially harmful and may cause long-term kidney damage.
The majority of the time, catheters are required only until you can use once again urine completely on your own, which is frequently a brief amount of time. Urinary catheter use might be required for a significantly longer period or permanently in elderly people, especially for those with severe illnesses or lifelong injuries.
5. Dried Urine Sampling (DUS)
Samples of dried pee are another way to collect urine for lab analysis. In addition to obtaining liquid urine into something like a cup or tube, as usual, a dried urine sample also entails placing tiny patches of the collected pee on specialized filter paper. On the filter paper, the dried pee stains are supposed to dry.
As an alternative, urine micro-samples can be obtained using the Mitra device’s tip. This technique involves collecting the liquid urine into a cup or tube, and then dipping the absorbent VAMS tip of the Mitra device into the liquid sample till the tip is saturated.
Then, it is permitted for the sampling equipment tips to dry. Then, they are put together into a bag that may be placed into an ordinary mail envelope and delivered to the lab. They will be examined as dried urine samples once they are at the lab.
So there you have it; perhaps the techniques I discussed in this article have given you a better understanding of how urinalysis is carried out. Even though the clean catch method is thought to be the most effective one, many experts advise dried urine collection since it is affordable and handy for consumers to collect the samples at home and deliver them directly to the lab.